Neem-based pesticide

Neem

Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a tree that belongs to the Meliaceae (Mahogany) family. Originated from southern and southeastern Asia neem is presently worldwide distributed. Neem is a fast-growing tree and can reach  25 meters in height. The leaves can reach up to 40 cm long with a flexible midrib carrying 20-30 leaflets each measuring 3-8cm and attached to the midrib by a short stalk. The flowers are grouped giving green olive-shaped fruits that turn yellow when ripe.


 




Neem action on plant pest and diseases

Neem extracts are used in agriculture for pests and disease management and to supply nutrients to plants. In addition, neem is safe for farmers can be used during the entire crop cycle, environmentally safe, and compatible with the different IPM strategies. 

Neem  compounds act as systemic and as contact poisons for pests:

  • Antifeedant/repellent
  • Sterilant
  • Disturb eggs laying
  • Disturb insects effects
  • Toxic effect
  • Inhibit roots invasion by nematodes
  • Inhibit bacteria and fungi growth

 


 




How to prepare neem-based pesticides

Fresh Leaves

  1. Collect 1 kg of green leaves detached from the midrib in a  bucket and add 5 liters of water
  2. Pound the leaves in a mortar and soak overnight or 12 hrs
  3. Collect the leaves and squeeze out the liquid.
  4. Strain the liquid through a kitchen sieve or muslin cloth to remove leaf pieces.
  5. Add about 20 g of soap into a small amount of water until dissolved.

Note  You can use the liquid from the leaves for up to one week after preparation; but it is best to store it in a cool, dark place.

 Dried Leaves

  1. Collect green neem leaves and dry them away from direct sunlight (Preferably in a house)
  2. Store the leaves in a container which allows plenty of air around the leaves
  3. Put 250 g of dried neem leaves in a strong bowl or bucket
  4. Add 5 liters of water
  5. Let the leaves soak overnight or 12 hrs
  6. Pound the leaves in a mortar and soak again overnight or 12 hrs
  7. Squeeze out the liquid, strain using a kitchen sieve or muslin cloth into a sprayer
  8. Add about 20 g soap into a small amount of water until dissolved and pour into the sprayer with the liquid from the leaves.

Seeds

  1. Select ripe fruits which are yellow and fallen under the tree
  2. Let the fruits dry in the sun for 3-4 days until they turn brown
  3. Pound the fruits in a mortar to remove the seeds without breaking them
  4. Winnow to separate the shells from the seeds. Throw away any light-colored seeds
  5. keep the darker ones
  6. Pounds the seeds in the wooden bowl to crush them into a fine powder
  7. Use 250 g (5 handfuls) of powder to 5 liters water, and mix well
  8. Soak the mixture for 24 hours
  9. Strain the liquid using the kitchen sieve or muslin cloth into a sprayer
  10. Add about 20 g soap into a small amount of water until dissolved and pour into the sprayer with the liquid from the seeds.

 

Note

  • If using a knapsack sprayer, keep the nozzle about 50 cm about the crop and spray over 250 m2 Keep the sieve and muslin used only for making neem spray.
  • Do not use for food.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
  • You can use the leaves and seeds after pounding. Spread them around the crop to repel insects and also as manure.