Mango

crop detail

The following are the crop details for Mango 

 

  • Scientific name: Mangifera indica 

  • Order: Sapindales.

  • Family: Anacardiaceae.

  • Genus: Mangifera.

  • Species: M.indica.

  • Local names: Swahili (mwembe)




Origin

 

Mango (mangiferia indica) is one of the most cultivated fruits that originated between northwest Myanmar, Bangladesh, and northwestern India. Numerous cultivars have been developed and spread all over the world including Kenya where it is cultivated in different parts of the country but primarily produced in Ukambani.




General information about the crop

 

Mango is an evergreen tree in the Anacardiaceae family that is grown for its edible fruit.

 

It has a dark, glossy, elliptical, or lanceolate leaf with long petioles and a leathery texture. It produces dense clusters of flowers with cream-pink petals.

 

Mango fruit is roughly oval in shape, with uneven sides. The fruit is a drupe, with an outer flesh surrounding a stone. The flesh is soft and yellow-orange in color. The fruit's skin ranges from yellow-green to red. Mango trees can reach a height of 45 meters (148 feet) and live for more than a century. Mango is thought to have originated in India or Burma (Myanmar). 

 

Mangoes are produced in most parts of Africa including Kenya, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Gambia, Ghana, Mali, and Ivory Coast. In Kenya, it is produced in Garissa, Kitui, Murang'a, Elgeyo Marakwet, Lamu, Kilifi, Kwale, Garissa, Makueni, Taita Taveta, Tharaka Nithi, Embu but Ukambani leads in production.

 

The mango tree is always green and its fruits varied in size, some are round, and some are oval, slender, long, kidney-shaped, and heart-shaped. Some of the varieties of mangoes are either colored with a shade of red and others yellow while others are green.

 

Apple mango, Kent mango, Tommy mango, and Ngowe mango are Kenyan mango varieties. 

 

Mango fruit is not only sweet but also has nutritional value as it helps improve immunity and plays an important role in digestion. Mango fruit is low in calories and is the best choice when reducing calorie intake. Mangoes have mostly consumed as a fruit known as mangoes which are highly rich in vitamins A, C, and D.




Mango varieties

 

The first variety of mangoes was seen in India over 4000 years ago and then spread all over the world. Mango is now consumed all over the world more than any other fruit.  Over 500 varieties of mangoes are known for different shapes, colors, lengths, and sizes. Green and yellow mangoes are the most common varieties in Kenya. 

 

Polyembryonic cultivars are generated from seed obtained from a tree plant. It includes local cultivars such as "Dodo", "Ngowe", "Boribo", "Sabre", "Peach", and "Batawi". 

 

Cultivar seeds can produce up to five nucellar embryos that are genetically identical to the parent tree.

 

Plants like "Tommy Atkins," "Kent," "Haden," and "Van Dyke" can only be propagated vegetatively. There are numerous advantages to vegetative propagation, such as early bearing, smaller trees, and so on. It should be encouraged as a result of this.




Climatic conditions, soils, and water

 

For it to grow it requires a loamy, alluvial, well-drained, aerated, and deep soil which is well drained to hold its extensive roots. When the tree is growing irrigation is highly encouraged to widen its scope for intercropping.  Irrigation is stopped when the tree is big to produce fruits. The correct temperature for growing mangoes is 24c-30c during the growing period with rainfall of 890-1,015 mm is considered ideal for mango growing.

 




Planting and propagation

Mango can be propagated either vegetatively or by seed. Its important for farmers to know that not all cultivars propagated by seed will produce seedlings that are same to their parent tree. 

 

Plant propagation has got two distinct groups:

-Polyembroic cultivars. 

-Husbandry.

 

It is best to use fresh, healthy mango seeds from mature, well-grown trees. They need to be washed and dried in the shade for a few days before being planted. Sow them at a 15 x 30 cm spacing and 5 cm depth. Place them on their sides, with the most prominently curved edge facing up, to form a straight stem. 

 

To hasten germination, the hard husk can be removed before sowing. Seedlings are best grown in a half-shade nursery.

 

Seeds germinate in 1 to 2 weeks and are transplanted into containers as soon as the first flush of growth hardens (about 4 weeks later and about 10 cm high) (about 18 x 24 cm). 

 

When they reach pencil-thickness, which is approximately 20 cm above soil level, they are ready for grafting. Cleft graft with improved cultivar scion. Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) (Mtwapa, Thika, Embu), prison farms, or any farm with the desired cultivars are good sources of scions of improved cultivars. Water frequently and shade the grafted plants. At about 4 months after grafting, grafted seedlings will be ready for transplanting.

 

Choose the location of the orchard with care. It is recommended that the soil be deeply cultivated by ploughing. All trees, bushes, and weeds are to be removed from the field before transplanting. Transplanting is ideal during the start of the rainy season. The planting hole should be 60 x 60 cm in size and 100 cm in depth. The hole should be larger (about 90 mm) in dry condition.

 

Depending on the variety and growth habit of the mango variety chosen, the spacing between trees ranges from 9 x 9 to 14 x 14 m. Before returning the soil to the hole with the young plant, mix in at least two buckets of good compost and a handful of Mijingu rock phosphate before returning the soil to the hole with the young mango plant. Consolidate the soil around the plant. Mulch and water thoroughly. Irrigation should be limited to the first year of the young trees.

 




Husbandry

 

In the area directly beneath the tree canopy, weeds should be kept to a minimum. During the first five years, intercropping with annual crops is recommended to maximize income until an economical mango yield is achieved. In young plantations, mulching around the tree helps to suppress weeds and retain soil moisture.

Pruning is an essential practice for mango trees; it helps in shaping young trees. Apart from controlling pests, pruning mango trees promotes flowering.

Formative pruning is done on young trees during their first years to help them grow into the desired shape. In the first year, cap the seedling at 1 m in height to produce a spreading framework of branches. In the second year, prune to leave 4 to 5 well-spaced branches as future main branches.




Advantages of pruning:

 

-It enables the tree to produce fruits on its tree's outer parts, which helps the fruit to mature on the trees.

-The open tree structure facilitates harvesting.

-It enables the tree to produce larger fruits.

-Allows other crops to be grown in the shade of trees.

The tree benefits from the natural conditions of sun and wind movement. This reduces relative humidity within the canopy while also creating a less conducive environment for disease development.

Following fruit harvest, structural pruning should be performed, with the canopy at least one meter above the ground. Remove any dead or sucker branches that have grown from the main structural branches, and prune the canopy to allow sunlight to pass through the canopy and reach the ground beneath the tree.




Harvesting.

Flowering usually begins after a dormant period caused by cool or dry weather. Smoke is commonly used by smallholder mango farmers to induce flowering.

A mango plantation will begin producing commercially marketable fruit from four to five years after planting and will be in good production after eight years, reaching full maturity at around 20 years of age.

A single tree should produce 200 to 500 fruits per year, with some varieties, such as "Dodo" and "Boribo," producing up to 1000 fruits per year. Most varieties produce biennially, and a poor harvest may follow a good one. Varieties with an annual bearing tendency should be selected.

Harvest mango fruit when it has reached the mature-green stage when it is hard and green. The "cheeks" of mature fruit are well-developed. 

Fruit should be picked by hand. Clip them off with a long stalk of about 2 to 3 cm and pack the fruit in a single layer in the box or crate with the stalks facing downwards. 

The latex that drips from the stalk must fall onto an absorbent material (for example tissue paper placed at the bottom of the container). 

Although mature mangoes ripen quickly, they have a low tolerance for temperatures below 10°C, especially when picked fresh. Ripe fruits, on the other hand, can be stored at temperatures as low as 7 to 8° C without developing a chilling injury.

 




Black flies and whiteflies (Aleurocanthus woglumi)

 

Whiteflies and blackflies feed on sap from leaves, weakening plants in large numbers. They make a lot of honeydew, which is where the sooty mould grows. These insects can almost completely blacken trees, reducing photosynthesis and potentially crippling the tree.

Adults are small (1-3 mm in length), with two pairs of wings held roof-style over the body. They look like tiny moths.




Products

Apart from the Mango tree cultivated to produce fruits, it can also be as fodder where its leaves can be used to feed cattle in small quantities. Its wood can be used to generate charcoal and firewood and as a honey plant. A mango tree can also produce timber for construction and carpentry. Mangoes can also be poisonous to sensitive individuals and their sleeves and seeds can be used as medicine to treat coughs, colds, and styptic.




Services

Mango trees provide various services to the soil, human beings, and animals. For example, it grows into an umbrella-shaped crown which provides shade and shelter for both animals and human beings. Also, when the leaves are used in mulching it improves soil fertility. A mango tree can also be intercropped with other plants and fruits to create a home garden.




References

 

Thais.cunha. (2022, February 7). Mango: 7 varieties of a tropical global passion | Brazilian Farmers. Brazilian Farmers. Retrieved January 27, 2023, from https://brazilianfarmers.com/news/mango-7-varieties-of-a-tropical-global-passion/

Raman, MS, RD, Snyder, & Warwick. (2021, November 3). Mango: Nutrition, Health Benefits, and How to Eat It. Mango: Nutrition, Health Benefits, and How to Eat It. Retrieved January 27, 2023, from https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/mango 

Mango | Infonet Biovision Home. (n.d.). Mango | Infonet Biovision Home. Retrieved January 27, 2023, from https://infonet-biovision.org/PlantHealth/Crops/Mango 

Lychee | Description, Tree, Fruit, Taste, & Facts. (2022, December 21). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved January 26, 2023, from https://www.britannica.com/plant/litchi-fruit

 




Common Pests and Diseases

Diseases

Category : Other

Algal leaf spot Cephaleuros virescens

Symptoms
Orange rusty spots on both upper and lower leaf surfaces which may coalesce to form large irregularly shaped patches; scraping away the orange spots reveals a grayish discoloration of the leaf lamina underneath
Cause
Alga
Comments
Disease affects many fruit trees in the tropics; infection is unsightly but often harmless
Management
Ensure that trees are properly pruned and fertilized to promote vigor; remove all weeds from around tree bases; employ a wider tree spacing to increase air circulation around the trees; badly infested trees can be treated with copper containing fungicides

Category : Fungal

Anthracnose Colletotrichum gleosporioides

Symptoms
Small, dark spots on flowers; spots coalesce to cover entire panicle; infected flowers dropping from tree; dark flecks or spots with yellow halo on young leaves; dark, irregular, sunken lesions on fruit; fruits dropping from tree before ripe
Cause
Fungus
Comments
Disease emergence favored by wet conditions; serious disease of mango wherever it is grown
Management
Susceptible mango varieties should be protected with fungicide in commercial production and the timing of the applications are critical to successful control; appropriate fungicide should be applied during flowering and fruit development

Phoma blight Phoma glomerata

Symptoms
Angular or irregular brown lesions on old leaves; lesions may develop gray centers and dark margin; withering leaves; defoliation of tree
Cause
Fungus
Comments

Pink disease Erythricium salmonicolor

Symptoms
White, silk-like threads at forks of branches which coalesce to form a pink crust during wet conditions; twigs and branches above this site may be killed and foliage will begin to dry out and die; orange pustules may be present on infected bark
Cause
Fungus
Comments
Pink disease is a destructive disease of mango grown in the wet tropics
Management
If pink disease is identified the recommended treatment is an application of an appropriate fungicide which can be applied by spraying or painting onto infected bark with a paintbrush

Powdery mildew Odium mangiferae

Symptoms
Gray-white powdery growth on leaves, flowers and/or fruit; curled, distorted shoots; fruit aborted and dropping from tree
Cause
Fungus
Comments
Found in all mango growing regions; outbreaks sporadic but can be severe
Management
Fungicides are very effective at controlling powdery mildew if applied at the first sign of the disease; chemical sprays only need be applied at flowering and fruit set

Sooty mold Several species of fungus

Symptoms
The leaves, twigs, inflorescence and fruits are covered with shiny black and sticky growth of fungal mycelium. The sooty mold won't cause any direct infection to plants, but it may effect the photosynthetic process which may cause premature aging and death of leaves. Also plants may show stunted growth.
Cause
Fungus
Comments
Sooty mold mainly develops on honey dew secreted by sap sucking insects like whiteflies, aphids, leaf hoppers, scale insects, mealybugs and psyllids. Also this insects are always associated with ants.
Management
1. If plants are small wash mold with strong stream of water 2. Spraying starch also removes sooty mold 3. Control sap sucking insects 4. Also keep the trees free from ants by applying a sticky compound around the trunk .

Category : Bacterial

Bacterial black spot (Bacterial canker) Xanthomonas campestris

Symptoms
Angular, water-soaked spots on leaves which coalesce and turn black; black cankerous lesions on stems which crack and exude a gummy substance; irregular black lesions on fruits which extend into the flesh and exude gum; fruits dropping from plant
Cause
Bacterium
Comments
Bacterial black spot is found in most tropical and subtropical areas where mango is grown
Management
Provide windbreaks for plants; prune out infected twigs; protective sprays of copper during wet weather help to protect plants from the disease

Pests

Category : Insects

Fruit fly Ceratitis cosyra
Bactrocera obliqua
Bactrocera frauenfeldi
Anastrepha spp.

Symptoms
The adult female flies lay egg just under the skin of semi repine fruits. The maggots develop and feed inside the fruit, causing the flesh to turn brown and soft which emits foul smell. This damage also act as entry site for fungal and bacterial pathogens.
Cause
Insect
Comments
The mature maggots fall out of the fruits and pupate in soil.
Management
1. Collect the fallen fruits and destroy them. 2. Also harvest fruits early to reduce flies damage . 3. Use traps to monitor fruit flies. Traps can be purchased in the market or one can prepare themselves. Take plastic container with lids (one quarts yogurt container is fine). Drill holes (10 to 16 holes) that are 3/16-inch in diameter around the upper side of the container. Add 1 to 2 inch of pure apple cider vinegar (not flavored one) and a drop of unscented liquid dishwashing soap into the container. Hang the container in shade near berry trees before fruits ripening and check the traps frequently for flies. Change the vinegar every week. 5. Spraying protein bait under leaf surface attract flies to single spot which make easier to kill them. 4. If infestation is severe spray suitable insecticide.

Mango hoppers Idioscopus clypealis
Idioscopus nitidulus
Amritodus atkinsoni

Symptoms
Reduced plant vigor; sticky substance coating leaves; may be a growth of sooty mold on sticky residues; curling and drying leaves
Cause
Insects
Comments
Insect emergence favored by shady and humid conditions

Mango mealybugs Drosicha mangiferae

Symptoms
Both nymphs and female insects sucks sap form all parts mango tree (i.e., tender leaves, shoots and inflorescence). The infected inflorescences may dry up affecting the fruit set and may cause fruit drop. Severely infected plants may show wilting and thereby affect fruit setting.
Cause
Insect
Comments
a. Mealybugs lay eggs in soil near tree trunk. b. The mealybugs secrete the honey dew which causes sooty mold. c. It feeds on wide range of plant species.
Management
1. Collect and burn fallen leaves and twigs. 2. Flooding orchard with water during October kills egg present in soil. Also deep ploughing in November exposes egg to sunlight. 3. After hatching the nymphs start climbing tree and suck sap. To avoid this band the tree trunks with polythene sheet (400 gauge, 30 cm wide) at a height of about 30 cm from the ground level and apply grease at the lower edge of band. Or you can use Funnel Type Slippery Traps. 4. To control insects already on tree you can spray fish oil rosin soap or azadirachtin (neem products). 5. Also soil application of the spores of the fungus, Beauveria bassiana helps in reducing mealybug population. 6. If infestation is severe you can spray suitable insecticides

Mango tree borer Batocera rufomaculata

Symptoms
Mango tree borer damage may first be noticed as circular holes in the bark. This damage indicates that the tree has been attacked by borers which have chewed exit holes in the wood. Mango tree borers feed on the bark of twigs and chew green growing tips; when feeding damage is severes, branches may be killed and the main stem of the tree may collapse; insect frass (feces) collects in cracks in the bark and around the base of the tree; holes become visible in the bark.
Cause
Insect
Comments
Mango tree borers are a pest of mango trees in many parts of Asia, Africa, Central America, the Caribbean and the Solomon Islands; female tree borers lay their eggs in an incision made in damaged mango bark; larvae bore through the wood as they feed and eventually pupate within the tree; adult insects emerge from an exit hole that they cut in the wood. adult insects are 25–55 mm long with distinctive long antennae which extend the length of the body
Management
Application of appropriate insecticide to the trunk and branches of the tree when adult insects are present acts to kill any eggs and larvae that are present; insecticide applied to growing twigs and green shoots may deter adult feeding; probing injury sites with a knife or piece of wire can help to destroy larvae and eggs

White Mango Scale Aulacaspis tubercularis

Symptoms
Scale insects suck the sap from leaves, branches and fruits which causes defoliation, drying up of young twigs, poor blossoming and also affect the quality of fruits by causing conspicuous pink blemishes. Infestation of young plants results in retard growth. In case of severe infestation the fruits may fall prematurely, whereas the mature fruits are reduced in size. Another major problem with scale insect is the development of sooty mold due to honeydew secretion.
Cause
Insect
Comments
The insect have wide host range and can be seen in all mango growing countries like Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe, Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Japan, Egypt, Iraq, Israel, Italy and in many South American countries.
Management
Remove the infested plant parts and burn them. Spraying emulsive oil or suitable insecticides at recommended quantity will helps in reducing scale population.
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