The following are the crop details for Mango
Mango (mangiferia indica) is one of the most cultivated fruits that originated between northwest Myanmar, Bangladesh, and northwestern India. Numerous cultivars have been developed and spread all over the world including Kenya where it is cultivated in different parts of the country but primarily produced in Ukambani.
Mango is an evergreen tree in the Anacardiaceae family that is grown for its edible fruit.
It has a dark, glossy, elliptical, or lanceolate leaf with long petioles and a leathery texture. It produces dense clusters of flowers with cream-pink petals.
Mango fruit is roughly oval in shape, with uneven sides. The fruit is a drupe, with an outer flesh surrounding a stone. The flesh is soft and yellow-orange in color. The fruit's skin ranges from yellow-green to red. Mango trees can reach a height of 45 meters (148 feet) and live for more than a century. Mango is thought to have originated in India or Burma (Myanmar).
Mangoes are produced in most parts of Africa including Kenya, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Gambia, Ghana, Mali, and Ivory Coast. In Kenya, it is produced in Garissa, Kitui, Murang'a, Elgeyo Marakwet, Lamu, Kilifi, Kwale, Garissa, Makueni, Taita Taveta, Tharaka Nithi, Embu but Ukambani leads in production.
The mango tree is always green and its fruits varied in size, some are round, and some are oval, slender, long, kidney-shaped, and heart-shaped. Some of the varieties of mangoes are either colored with a shade of red and others yellow while others are green.
Apple mango, Kent mango, Tommy mango, and Ngowe mango are Kenyan mango varieties.
Mango fruit is not only sweet but also has nutritional value as it helps improve immunity and plays an important role in digestion. Mango fruit is low in calories and is the best choice when reducing calorie intake. Mangoes have mostly consumed as a fruit known as mangoes which are highly rich in vitamins A, C, and D.
The first variety of mangoes was seen in India over 4000 years ago and then spread all over the world. Mango is now consumed all over the world more than any other fruit. Over 500 varieties of mangoes are known for different shapes, colors, lengths, and sizes. Green and yellow mangoes are the most common varieties in Kenya.
Polyembryonic cultivars are generated from seed obtained from a tree plant. It includes local cultivars such as "Dodo", "Ngowe", "Boribo", "Sabre", "Peach", and "Batawi".
Cultivar seeds can produce up to five nucellar embryos that are genetically identical to the parent tree.
Plants like "Tommy Atkins," "Kent," "Haden," and "Van Dyke" can only be propagated vegetatively. There are numerous advantages to vegetative propagation, such as early bearing, smaller trees, and so on. It should be encouraged as a result of this.
Mango can be propagated either vegetatively or by seed. Its important for farmers to know that not all cultivars propagated by seed will produce seedlings that are same to their parent tree.
Plant propagation has got two distinct groups:
It is best to use fresh, healthy mango seeds from mature, well-grown trees. They need to be washed and dried in the shade for a few days before being planted. Sow them at a 15 x 30 cm spacing and 5 cm depth. Place them on their sides, with the most prominently curved edge facing up, to form a straight stem.
To hasten germination, the hard husk can be removed before sowing. Seedlings are best grown in a half-shade nursery.
Seeds germinate in 1 to 2 weeks and are transplanted into containers as soon as the first flush of growth hardens (about 4 weeks later and about 10 cm high) (about 18 x 24 cm).
When they reach pencil-thickness, which is approximately 20 cm above soil level, they are ready for grafting. Cleft graft with improved cultivar scion. Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) (Mtwapa, Thika, Embu), prison farms, or any farm with the desired cultivars are good sources of scions of improved cultivars. Water frequently and shade the grafted plants. At about 4 months after grafting, grafted seedlings will be ready for transplanting.
Choose the location of the orchard with care. It is recommended that the soil be deeply cultivated by ploughing. All trees, bushes, and weeds are to be removed from the field before transplanting. Transplanting is ideal during the start of the rainy season. The planting hole should be 60 x 60 cm in size and 100 cm in depth. The hole should be larger (about 90 mm) in dry condition.
Depending on the variety and growth habit of the mango variety chosen, the spacing between trees ranges from 9 x 9 to 14 x 14 m. Before returning the soil to the hole with the young plant, mix in at least two buckets of good compost and a handful of Mijingu rock phosphate before returning the soil to the hole with the young mango plant. Consolidate the soil around the plant. Mulch and water thoroughly. Irrigation should be limited to the first year of the young trees.
For it to grow it requires a loamy, alluvial, well-drained, aerated, and deep soil which is well drained to hold its extensive roots. When the tree is growing irrigation is highly encouraged to widen its scope for intercropping. Irrigation is stopped when the tree is big to produce fruits. The correct temperature for growing mangoes is 24c-30c during the growing period with rainfall of 890-1,015 mm is considered ideal for mango growing.
In the area directly beneath the tree canopy, weeds should be kept to a minimum. During the first five years, intercropping with annual crops is recommended to maximize income until an economical mango yield is achieved. In young plantations, mulching around the tree helps to suppress weeds and retain soil moisture.
Pruning is an essential practice for mango trees; it helps in shaping young trees. Apart from controlling pests, pruning mango trees promotes flowering.
Formative pruning is done on young trees during their first years to help them grow into the desired shape. In the first year, cap the seedling at 1 m in height to produce a spreading framework of branches. In the second year, prune to leave 4 to 5 well-spaced branches as future main branches.
-It enables the tree to produce fruits on its tree's outer parts, which helps the fruit to mature on the trees.
-The open tree structure facilitates harvesting.
-It enables the tree to produce larger fruits.
-Allows other crops to be grown in the shade of trees.
The tree benefits from the natural conditions of sun and wind movement. This reduces relative humidity within the canopy while also creating a less conducive environment for disease development.
Following fruit harvest, structural pruning should be performed, with the canopy at least one meter above the ground. Remove any dead or sucker branches that have grown from the main structural branches, and prune the canopy to allow sunlight to pass through the canopy and reach the ground beneath the tree.
Flowering usually begins after a dormant period caused by cool or dry weather. Smoke is commonly used by smallholder mango farmers to induce flowering.
A mango plantation will begin producing commercially marketable fruit from four to five years after planting and will be in good production after eight years, reaching full maturity at around 20 years of age.
A single tree should produce 200 to 500 fruits per year, with some varieties, such as "Dodo" and "Boribo," producing up to 1000 fruits per year. Most varieties produce biennially, and a poor harvest may follow a good one. Varieties with an annual bearing tendency should be selected.
Harvest mango fruit when it has reached the mature-green stage when it is hard and green. The "cheeks" of mature fruit are well-developed.
Fruit should be picked by hand. Clip them off with a long stalk of about 2 to 3 cm and pack the fruit in a single layer in the box or crate with the stalks facing downwards.
The latex that drips from the stalk must fall onto an absorbent material (for example tissue paper placed at the bottom of the container).
Although mature mangoes ripen quickly, they have a low tolerance for temperatures below 10°C, especially when picked fresh. Ripe fruits, on the other hand, can be stored at temperatures as low as 7 to 8° C without developing a chilling injury.
Apart from the Mango tree cultivated to produce fruits, it can also be as fodder where its leaves can be used to feed cattle in small quantities. Its wood can be used to generate charcoal and firewood and as a honey plant. A mango tree can also produce timber for construction and carpentry. Mangoes can also be poisonous to sensitive individuals and their sleeves and seeds can be used as medicine to treat coughs, colds, and styptic.
Mango trees provide various services to the soil, human beings, and animals. For example, it grows into an umbrella-shaped crown which provides shade and shelter for both animals and human beings. Also, when the leaves are used in mulching it improves soil fertility. A mango tree can also be intercropped with other plants and fruits to create a home garden.
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Lychee | Description, Tree, Fruit, Taste, & Facts. (2022, December 21). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved January 26, 2023, from https://www.britannica.com/plant/litchi-fruit